Reading and Resources
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Diabetic retinopathy factsheet. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/pdf/factsheet.pdf.
CDC Vision Health Initiative. Diabetic retinopathy. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/publications/diabetic_retinopathy.htm.
Bolinger MT, Antonetti DA. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel therapies for treating diabetic retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1498.
The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network [DRCR.net]. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372:1193-1203.
Eshaq RS, Aldalati AMZ, Alexander JS, Harris NR. Diabetic retinopathy: Breaking the barrier. Pathophysiology. 2017;24:229–241.
Feng S, et al. Levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, and TNF-α in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy. J Diabetes Res. 2018:8546423.
Kusuhara S, et al. Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy: the old and the new. Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42:364-376.
Solomon SD, Chew E, Duh EJ, et al [2017 ADA Position Statement]. Diabetic retinopathy: A position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(3):412–418.
Urias EA, Urias GA, Monickaraj F. Novel therapeutic targets in diabetic macular edema: beyond VEGF. Vision Res. 2017;139:221-227.
Wang W, Lo AC. Diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiology and treatments. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(6):1816.
Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: two-year results from a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(6):1351-1359.
American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) https://www.asrs.org/patients
CDC. Watch Out for Diabetic Retinopathy. https://www.cdc.gov/features/diabetic-retinopathy/index.html
National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). Healthy Eyes Matter. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/pdfs/149-healthy-eyes-matter.pdf
National Eye Institute (NEI). Diabetic retinopathy. https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/diabetic-retinopathy
Clinical TrialsNIH US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov
Resources from Professional Organizations
American Diabetes Association (ADA) https://www.diabetes.org/
American Optometric Association (AOA) https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public
American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) https://www.aao.org/about/who-we-are/overview
American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) https://www.asrs.org/
National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/index.html
National Eye Institute (NEI) https://www.nei.nih.gov/
World Health Organization (WHO) Priority eye diseases: Diabetic retinopathy. https://www.who.int/blindness/causes/priority/en/index5.html